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Czech: An Essential Grammar. Free delivery worldwide. Expected to be delivered to Germany by Christmas. Description Czech: An Essential Grammar is a practical reference guide to the core structures and features of modern Czech. Presenting a fresh and accessible description of the language, this engaging grammar uses clear, jargon-free explanations and sets out the complexities of Czech in short, readable sections.
With an emphasis on the Czech that native speakers use today, Czech: An Essential Grammar will help students to read, speak and write the language with greater confidence.
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Je tady Petr. Petr je tady. Petr is here.
Questions opening with question words have a similar falling pattern to plain statements, again with a short rise on a key word near the end. The question word itself makes it clear that this is a question, so no special pattern is required: Kde je Petr? Where is Petr? An exclamation will produce a greater rise on a key word near the end: Petr je tady! Je tady Petr! Petr is here!
Je Petr tady? Is Petr here? The question intonation patterns indicate incompleteness the reply should complete the whole by supplying the requested answer. Similarly, non-final clauses in a sentence will also have a less prominent form of rising intonation e. Petr is here, but Jana is at home. Capital letters 2. The position of ch after h is the difference most likely to throw new learners. Letters may be read out as follows, e. Often only the first word is capitalised, e.
Such names themselves also now officially have capital letters, as recommended usage, on the first following word, even if this is not a proper name. Formerly before the issuing of this recommendation for schools in the following word had either, depending on the name s origin.
Those cited will mainly reflect the relaxed, informal everyday usage of Prague and Bohemia. Foreigners using these features may expect sometimes to attract criticism even from Czechs who habitually speak like this themselves, or else from educated Moravians, who sometimes pride themselves on speaking a more standard variety of Czech than their Prague counterparts while also having their own regional dialects. Learners are advised to be a little cautious about using non-standard forms until they are competent enough to be able to adapt to the formality or informality of the situation in which they are speaking.
Nonstandard Czech a Change of o to EJ In non-standard usage the vowel represented in standard spelling by long o is sometimes altered to EJ. This feature is particularly common and prominent in the endings of adjectives see sections 4.
Again, this is particularly common in the endings of adjectives, e. Another prominent non-standard usage is the colloquial instrumental plural of nouns, ending in -ama, -ema, -ma see section etc. Adjectives and pronouns have non-standard endings here also, e. Other non-standard features are pointed out elsewhere throughout the book.